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>>>Articles, Presentations, and Applications

  • Education Package for Micro-ESR
    The Education Package includes an experiment manual designed specifically for the Micro-ESR, an instructor's guide, and offline processing, analysis, and simulation software. The Education Package is a very good investment for Chemistry Departments as there are a wide range of labs (p-chem, organic, analytical, and general chemistry) that can be addressed with the Micro-ESR. The Micro-ESR has a sweep range of over 500 Gauss centered at g =2, and is a research grade instrument, so can be used for student research as well as chemistry labs.

  • Disulfide-Linked Dinitroxides for Monitoring Cellular Thiol Redox Status Through Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    Micro-ESR and novel disulfide-linked dinitroxes were used to obtain quantitative estimates of accessible intracellular thiol in human lymphocytes. Both natural abundace and D, 15N substituted disulfide-dinitroxides were used in the study .
  • On the early reaction stages of ozone with N,N'-substituted p-phenylenediamines (6PPD, 77PD) and N,N',N"-substituted-1,3,5-triazine (Durazone): An Electron spin resonance (ESR) and electronic absorption spectroscopy study, F. Cataldo
    Micro-ESR and UV-VIS used to study the reaction mechanism of ozone with antiozonants used to protect rubber products .
  • Ethyl Oleate and Ethyl Elaidate Ozonides: Thermal Decomposition and Photolysis (F.Cataldo)
    The thermal decomposition and photolysis of these ozonides both produce the same products (FT-IR). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows that while the decomposition is quite exothermic, it is not explosive. Spin trapping with nitrosobenzene leads to a nitroxide spin adduct. Trioxides may be reponsible for the spin adduct.
  • Poster- Electron Spin Resonance as a Probe for Antioxidant Reaction Mechanisms in Lubricants: ESR Signatures of Some Common Additives
    The Micro-ESR is an ideal tool to uncover mechanisms of antioxidant additives in prolonging the useful life of lubricants.
  • Electron Spin Resonance used to measure long term stability in Fullerene (C60) radical cations.
    Micro-ESR and NIR were used to follow the kinetics of C60 radical cation formation in oleum.
  • Perylene radical cation spectrum taken on Active Spectrum's Micro-ESR spectrometer.
  • Measure electron spin-spin exchange in solutions of Fremy's salt with Micro-ESR
    Electron spin-spin exchange occurs when two radicals in solution with opposite spin collide (the two electronic wave functions overlap). The spin exchange shortens the lifetime of the state, and therefore broadens the lines.
  • Elucidate free radical reaction mechanisms with a Benchtop Micro-ESR spectrometer
    Free radicals that are too short-lived to be directly observed by ESR will react with other molecules, and can form relatively stable radicals. These radicals are referred to as spin adducts. The identity of spin adducts is key to determining many free radical reaction mechanisms.
  • Analyzing Spin-labeled ApoA-I via SDSL with Micro-ESR - Poster, Rocky Mountain Conferencee, 2012.
    Micro-ESR can measure functional HDL levels via site directed spin labeling of the protein apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I)...
  • Poster- Asphaltene Radical Concentration and Solvent Polarity
    Heptane precipitated asphaltenes show an exponential decrease in radical concentration as the solvent polarity is increased.
  • Micro-ESR SensitivityTest with TEMPOL in Aqueous Solution
    TEMPOL is commonly used to determine spectrometer sensitivity, as shown in the attached article ...
  • Using Active Spectrum's Micro-ESR Kinetics Software to Easily Acquire and Process Kinetics Data
    Many beverages including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and beer contain antioxidants. In this example, we look at blueberry juice. TEMPOL is a "stable" free radical which reacts with antioxidants, and as a free radical, TEMPOL gives an ESR signal. The rate at which the TEMPOL signal decays, gives valuable information about the reaction mechanism.
  • Rectangular ESR Tubes
    More than double signal to noise with aqueous or other polar solvents with rectangular sample tubes.
  • Micro-ESR at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature
    Easily run samples at 77 K. Custom dewar fits 1.7 mm capillary tubes.
  • Blunt End Needles
    Blunt end needles come in both 12 and 20 Gauge sizes. The 20 G needles are ideal for filling capillaries as the needle will fit even into a 1.6 mm capillary tube. The 12 G needles are ideal for viscous samples.
  • Technical Article - Micro-ESR: Miniature Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy - American Laboratory, 2011.
    The state-of-the-art microwave electronics employed in the Micro-ESR™ (Active Spectrum, Inc., Foster City, CA) can significantly reduce both the size and cost of ESR spectroscopy...
  • Measure vanadium, asphaltene concentration from the field - E&P Magazine, 2009.
    Asphaltenes can pose serious problems for crude oil producers and pipelines by increasing viscosity of the crude and potentially fouling pipelines...
  • Unlocking Free Radicals with Micro Electron Spin Resonance - Practicing Oil Analysis, 2008.
    Free radicals are highly reactive chemical species that govern many fundamental processes in nature, most notably combustion and oxidation...
  • Spin Trapping Hydroxyl Radicals with DMPO
    Micro-ESR provides a portable, cost-effective, and sensitive spectrometer that can measure DMPO-OH radicals...
  • Spin Adducts of DMPO
    Micro-ESR is a very versatile spectrometer and can be used to observe many spin-trapped radicals.
  • PTIO as a Spin Trap for Nitric Oxide
    Nitric Oxide is an important compound in biological systems as well as in the environment.
  • Automated Power Saturation Software
    Knowing the maximum power at which any given sample can be run is necessary for obtaining optimal results. Active Spectrum's acquisition software allows for automated power arrays.
  • Extended Range Benchtop ESR can be used in applications involving crystal defects, coordination chemistry, ferrofluids,and other transition metals, rare-earths and actinides
    This new compact benchtop has a 7000 G sweep range, superior signal to noise, and is competitively priced. Variable temperature and laser irradiation accessories are also available.
  • Automated Concentration Measurements Using Micro-ESR
    Easily set up a calibration table using three or more samples of known concentration. The software will automatically analyze the spectra of samples of unknown concentration.
  • >>What is Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)? (Also EPR, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance)



    Electron spin resonance is a magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique that uses the same basic principles as MRI and NMR. Both MRI and NMR interact with atomic nuclei whereas ESR interacts with electrons. Most molecules give NMR spectra even though not all nuclei are NMR active. This, however, is not true for ESR. In order for a molecule to be ESR active, it must have at least one unpaired electron. Many compounds have only spin-paired electrons. In magnetic resonance, both NMR and ESR, it is the magnetic component of the electromagnetic radiation that interacts with the magnetic moment of the electron or nucleus. Spin-paired electrons have a net magnetic moment of zero, and therefore are EPR silent.


    All radicals, by definition, have an unpaired electron. Many radicals are quite stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Many transition metals have one or more unpaired electron, and also have ESR signals. Molecular oxygen in its ground state has 2 unpaired electrons, and is ESR active. Short lived radicals, such as superoxyl and peroxyl, can also be observed indirectly with a technique called spin trapping.


    >>Who we are

    Active Spectrum manufactures benchtop Electron Spin Resonance (ESR/EPR) spectrometers, including the portable, 10 kg Micro-ESR. We have a world-wide market, and applications that include research, education, and industry. All of our spectrometers are versatile and competitively priced. Our Education Package is affordable even for most small colleges. We are committed to working with our customers to develop and deliver custom hardware and software solutions for any application.

    ASI was founded in 2005 and is located in Foster City, California, in the San Francisco Bay Area. All our products are manufactured in the United States.


    Active Spectrum is protected by the following patents:
    US7589529, US7868616,US8125224, US8212563, US8648596, US8829904, US9103261, and JP5210171.



     
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